Download and read online Soils of the tropics in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Tropical Soils in PDF and EPUB 1. Introduction. 2. Mineralogy. 3. Soil Chemistry. 4. Soil Physics. 5. Soil Biology and Microbiology. 6. Soil Fertility. 7. Soil Formation and Classification. 8. Major Soils of the Tropics: A Descriptive Classification Based on Clay Mineralogy. 9. Soil Management: An Overview. 10. Properties and Management of Kaolinitic Soils. 11. Properties and Management of Oxidic Soils. 12. Properties and Management of Smectitic Soils. 13. Properties and Management of Allophanic Soils. 14. Soils and Sustainable Agriculture.
Download and read online Sustainable Management of Soil Resources in the Humid Tropics in PDF and EPUB Misuse of the soil & inappropriate agricultural systems are causing degradation of the humid tropical eco-region & perpetuating food shortages, malnutrition & poor standards of living. This publication presents research information on scientifically proven methods of deforestation for conversion to agricultural land use, & soil & crop management systems that allow for the sustained use of soil & water resources in the humid tropics. It cites examples of appropriate techniques with explanations of their impact on production, soil quality & the environment. Information is also provided on the characteristics of an improved farming system; new land development; run-off management & erosion control; & nutrient management. It also outlines research & development priorities.
Download and read online Tropical Forage Plants in PDF and EPUB Tropical Forage Plants: Development and Use covers the research and resulting pasture development in the tropics and subtropics, which has undergone dramatic changes in the past few decades. Providing a broad, global perspective, it serves as a comprehensive resource covering a wide range of subjects pertaining to forage and animal production in the tropics and subtropics including such aspects as agronomy, pasture management, forage plant breeding, soils, plant nutrition, and disease management and control. The book presents extensive coverage of the technical aspects of forage-based agriculture in the tropics. It addresses both the scientific aspects of this technology and its practical application. The editors integrate the extensive research on tropical forage species in the western hemisphere with that of global research efforts. They provide over 15,000 references that lay the groundwork for further research. The editors have assembled an excellent mixture of theorists and applied scientists giving the book wide-ranging, interdisciplinary appeal. In addition to providing extensive coverage of development and usage globally, Tropical Forage Plants: Development and Use presents the key aspects of selecting, breeding, and managing superior pastures in the tropics in the context of meeting local needs and global environmental concerns.
Download and read online The Soul of Soil in PDF and EPUB Soil is the basis not only for all gardening, but for all terrestrial life. No aspect of agriculture is more fundamental and important, yet we have been losing vast quantities of our finite soil resources to erosion, pollution, and development. Now back in print, this eminently sensible and wonderfully well-focused book provides essential information about one of the most significant challenges for those attempting to grow delicious organic vegetables: the creation and maintenance of healthy soil. Chapter 2, "Understanding the Soil System," is alone worth the price of admission. Gershuny and Smillie give lay readers and experts a clear explanation of subjects--soil life and nutrient cycles--that have confounded most authors. Nowhere will the reader find simpler and more coherent descriptions of key concepts including cation exchange capacity and chelation. There are other books about soil available, including Grace Gershuny's comprehensive Start with the Soil, and there are books that feature chapters on soil building. What distinguishes The Soil of Soilis the authors' concise presentation; they give readers important information, including technical essentials, without getting bogged down in scientific or quasiscientific mumbo-jumbo. In addition, useful tables list specific compost materials, green manures, and other resources that allow growers to translate into action the more general information provided by the book. The soil-building techniques featured include: Organic matter management Building and maintaining humus On-site composting Green manures and rotations Cultivation and weed control Nutrient balances and soil testing Using mineral fertilizers Planning for organic certification Updates to the 1999 edition include analysis of Proposed Rules for the National Organic Standards, and expanded recommendations for private testing services and soil-testing equipment for home gardeners and organic farmers. All of us involved in the cultivation of plants--from the backyard gardener to the largest farmer--need to help regenerate a "living soil," for only in the diversity of the soil and its creatures can we ensure the long-term health of ourselves and our environment. The Soul of Soil offers everyone a basic understanding of what soil is and what we can do to improve our own patch of it. Seen in this light, this practical handbook will be an inspiration as well.
Download and read online Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems in PDF and EPUB Tropical ecosystems - the regions between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn - play an important role in global processes, economic issues, and political concerns. In their natural state, tropical ecosystems support a large quantity of above- and below-ground biomass, and constitute a major part of the terrestrial carbon pool. Conversion of the natural ecosystem to agriculture and forestry ecosystems disturbs this ecological balance. Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems presents data on carbon pool fluxes from case studies in 12 countries in tropical regions. The chapters cover: Characteristics of tropical ecosystems Soil and biotic carbon pools Impacts of land use and soil management Slash-and-burn practices Crop residue and fertility management This volume adds to the understanding of pedospheric processes in tropical ecosystems and how to better use soils as a sink for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. With Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems you will understand the link between soil productivity, environmental quality and the global carbon cycle, not only in these ecologically sensitive regions but worldwide.
Download and read online Weed Biology and Management in PDF and EPUB Weeds hold an enigmatic and sometimes-controversial place in agriculture, where they are generally reviled, grudgingly tolerated, and occasionally admired. In most cases, growers make considerable effort to reduce the negative economic impact of weeds because they compete with crops for resources and hinder field operations, thereby affecting crop productivity and quality, and ultimately the sustainability of agriculture. Weed control in production agriculture is commonly achieved through the integration of chemical, biological, and mechanical management methods. Chemicals (herbicides) usually inhibit the growth and establishment of weed plants by interfering with various physiological and biochemical pathways. Biological methods include crop competition, smother crops, rotation crops, and allelopathy, as well as specific insect predators and plant pathogens. Mechanical methods encompass an array of tools from short handled hoes to sophisticated video-guided robotic machines. Integrating these technologies, in order to relieve the negative impacts of weeds on crop production in a way that allows growers to optimize profits and preserve human health and the environment, is the science of weed management.
Download and read online Advances in Agronomy in PDF and EPUB Written by international authorities in agronomy, Volume 63 contains five comprehensive reviews covering key contemporary topics on crop and soil sciences. As always, the topics are varied and exemplary of the array of subject matter covered by this long-running serial. With this latest volume, Advances in Agronomy continues to be recognized as a leading reference and as a first-rate source of the latest research in agronomy, crop science, and soil science. * articles on: * Applications of fractals to soil studies * The response of cool season grain legumes to soil abiotic stress * Kura Clover * Ultisols * Formation mechanisms of complex organic structures in soil habitats
Download and read online Soils Ecosystem Processes and Agricultural Development in PDF and EPUB The main objective of this book is to integrate environmental knowledge observed in local agriculture, based on the understanding of soils science and ecology, and to propose possible technical solutions and a more integrated approach to tropical agriculture. The chapters describe and analyze the ecological and technical countermeasures available for mitigating environmental degradation due to the increasing agricultural activities by humans, based on our scientific understanding of traditional agriculture in the tropics. This is an effective approach, as such ecological and technical tools previously involved in traditional activities are expected to be easily incorporated into present agricultural systems. The book starts with a rather classical pedological issue and analyzed traditional agricultural practices with different resource management strategies in terms of their modification of natural biological processes. It focuses on the present situation of tropical agriculture; that is, resource utilization in modern agriculture after application of technical innovation (increased application of chemical fertilizers as well as agricultural chemicals). Here, possible technical approaches to resource management that reasonably support agricultural production whilst mitigating environmental degradation are discussed. The negative impacts of agricultural development on our environment are rapidly growing, yet we are increasingly dependent on the agricultural sector for food and energy. The situation is similar in the tropics, where subsistence agriculture with low input management has long comprised most agricultural systems. Comparison of ecological and/or agronomical studies between different continents are still rare; therefore, this analysis may help clarify what is an essential problem when considering technical transportation beyond continents and/or between temperate and tropical regions.
Download and read online Handbook of Soil Sciences in PDF and EPUB An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for construction and manufacturing. To develop lasting solutions to the challenges of balanced use and stewardship of the Earth, we require a fundamental understanding of soil—from its elastic, porous three-phase system to its components, processes, and reactions. Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes, Second Edition is the first of two volumes that form a comprehensive reference on the discipline of soil science. Completely revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge, this volume covers the traditional areas of soil science: soil physics, soil chemistry, soil mineralogy, soil biology and biochemistry, and pedology. Contributors discuss the application of physical principles to characterize the soil system and mass and energy transport processes within the critical zone. They present significant advances in soil chemistry; describe how minerals are formed and transformed; and provide an introduction to the soil biota. They also examine geomorphology, land use, hydropedology, and subaqueous soils as well as the classification and digital mapping of soil. Critical elements addressed in each section include: Descriptions of concepts and theories Definitions, approaches, methodologies, and procedures Data in tabular and figure format Extensive references This cohesive handbook provides a thorough understanding of soil science principles and practices based on a rigorous, complete, and up-to-date treatment of the subject matter compiled by leading scientists. It is a resource rich in data, offering professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and students their first point of entry into a particular aspect of the soil sciences.
Download and read online Soil Management in PDF and EPUB The experiments and experiences discussed in Soil Management carefully document crop production systems with well-defined boundaries. These long-term agronomic trials provide a valuable data resource that has, until now, been largely ignored by both the research community and the sustainability experts. With a rigorous definition of sustainability and this data, the sustainability of various cropping systems will be more clearly illustrated than any previous effort. Particular emphasis is given to research involving the tropics and sub-tropics. This book is unique in providing an experimental basis for sustainable management of soil resources. It describes technological options for sustainable management of soil resources and identifies priorities for additional long-term experimentation needed in key ecoregions. Topics discussed include changes in soil processes and properties, environmental quality, soil management, soil dynamics, soil organic matter, and nutrient cycling. Soil Management is for those who ask whether agriculture is sustainable, want to analyze or review sustainability experiments and experiences, or wish to initiate new long-term trials. It is a valuable reference on soil processes and an excellent text for courses in soil management.
Download and read online Human Impacts on Amazonia in PDF and EPUB From the pre-Columbian era to the present, native Amazonians have shaped the land around them, emphasizing utilization, conservation, and sustainability. These priorities stand in stark contrast to colonial and contemporary exploitation of Amazonia by outside interests. With essays from environmental scientists, botanists, and anthropologists, this volume explores the various effects of human development on Amazonia. The contributors argue that by protecting and drawing on local knowledge and values, further environmental ruin can be avoided.
Download and read online Handbook of Soil Science in PDF and EPUB The Handbook of Soil Science provides a resource rich in data that gives professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and their students a handy reference about the discipline of soil science. This handbook serves professionals seeking specific, factual reference information. Each subsection includes a description of concepts and theories; definitions; approaches; methodologies and procedures; tabular data; figures; and extensive references.
Download and read online Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agroecosystems in PDF and EPUB With the use of high-level soil management technology, Africa could feed several billion people, yet food production has generally stagnated since the 1960s. No matter how powerful the seed technology, the seedling emerging from it can flourish only in a healthy soil. Accordingly, crop yields in Africa, South Asia, and the Caribbean could be doubled or tripled through adoption of technologies based on laws of sustainable soil management. Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agroecosystems describes the application of these laws to enhance ecosystem services while restoring degraded soils and promoting sustainable use. With chapters contributed by world-class soil scientists, ecologists, and social scientists, this book outlines critical changes in management of agricultural soils necessary to achieve food security and meet the food demands of the present and projected future population. These changes include conversion to no-till and conservation agriculture; adoption of strategies of integrated nutrient management, water harvesting, and use of drip sub-irrigation; complex cropping/farming systems such as cover cropping and agroforestry; and use of nano-enhanced fertilizers. The book is based on the premise that it is not possible to extract more from a soil than what is put into it without degrading its quality. The strategy is to replace what is removed, respond wisely to what is changed, and be pro-active to what may happen because of natural and anthropogenic perturbations. The chapters, which exemplify these ideas, cover a range of topics including organic farming, soil fertility, crop-symbiotic soil microbiota, human-driven soil degradation, soil degradation and restoration, carbon sink capacity of soils, soil renewal and sustainability, and the marginality principle.
Download and read online Soil Geography of the USA in PDF and EPUB Since 1980, our understanding of the factors and processes governing the distribution of soils on the Earth’s surface has increased dramatically, as have the techniques for studying soil patterns. The approach used in this book relies on the National Resources Conservation Service databases to delineate the distribution of each of the eight diagnostic epipedons and 19 subsurface horizons, to identify the taxonomic level at which each of these horizons is used, to develop an understanding of the role of the factors and processes in their formation and to summarize our latest understanding of their genesis. A chapter is devoted to each diagnostic horizon (or combined horizons). This book is intended to serve as a textbook in soil geography, a reference book for geographers, ecologists and geologists and a tool for soil instructors, landlookers, mappers, classifiers and information technologists.